“conceptual proliferation”.
monkey mind.

1) to spread out or proliferate;
2) an illusion or an obsession; and
3) an obstacle or impediment.
The place where these three meanings converge in experience is not hard to locate. Sit down with your back straight and your legs folded around your ankles, close your eyes, and attend carefully to your experience. What do you see? Papañca.
–Andrew Olendzki

“the layers of thoughts and concepts that obscures what is barely perceived.” (ruben2020, stackexchange)
“conceptualization of the world through the use of ever-expanding language and concepts” (Nanananda)
“reification. … to attribute real [concrete existence] to a concept” (Yeshe Tenley, stackexchange)

Opposite “could be ‘yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti’ which means ‘seeing things clearly as they truly are’. (ruben2020, stackexchange)

( sa: prapañca | zh-cn: 戲論 )

Good discussion at Buddhism StackExchange:

What is Papañca?


Everything is interrelated. Translated as “dependent origination”, or “dependent arising” — it is the principle that all phenomena arise in dependence upon other phenomena.

It is also a part of emptiness — suññatā: Nothing exists all by itself.


“Perfection” — literal meaning “completed”.
The Six Perfections are dāna, sīla, kṣānti, vīrya, dhyāna, prajñā. The Ten Perfections add sacca, adhiṭṭhāna, mettā, upekkhā.

“implies that all of these characteristics are natural qualities of the heart that we can develop, that we can perfect. …
“The perfections are ten specific ways of benefiting other beings. … Additionally striking: the perfections are not specifically Buddhist. These ‘sacred adornments of the heart’ are found historically among people of good will everywhere on our planet.”
— Jean Smith, “Making the Buddha’s perfections our own”,

( pi: also pāramitā | sa: pāramitā


An important Buddhist concept referring to “attachment, clinging, grasping”. It is considered to be the result of taṇhā (craving), and is part of the dukkha (suffering, pain) doctrine in Buddhism.
upadhi dukkhassa mūlanti: “Attachment is the root of suffering.”

The idea is not clinging or attachment to the thing itself, but the mental state of clinging to one’s thoughts about it, that leads to dukkha. It is that mental state that we want to detach from, let go of — not the thing or person.

The literal meaning is “fuel, material cause, substrate that is the source and means for keeping an active process energized”.

( sa: upadana उपादान | bo: len pa ལེན་པ | zh-cn: qǔ 取 | ja: shu 取 | ko: chui 取(취) | vi: thủ 取 | en: attachment )


Mindfulness, paying attention, being in the present moment.

“Right mindfulness” (Pali: sammā-sati, Sanskrit samyak-smṛti) is the seventh element of the Noble Eightfold Path.

To “see things as they are”: Yathā-bhūta-ñāna-dassana

( pi: sati सति | sa: smṛti स्मृति | bo: drenpa དྲན་པ། | ja: nen 念 (ネン) | zh: nian 念 | ko: yŏm 염 | vi: niệm | en: mindfulness )



“Abodes of brahma” — the four Buddhist virtues of Loving-kindness (metta), Compassion (karuna), Empathetic Joy (mudita), and Equanimity (upekkha), and the meditation practices to cultivate them.

( sa: brahmavihārāḥ ब्रह्मविहारा | bo: tshang pe ne ཚངས་པའི་གནས་བཞི་ )



It is the second of the four sublime states (Brahmavihāras) of Loving-kindness (metta), Compassion (karuna), Empathetic Joy (mudita), and Equanimity (upekkha).

( sa: karuṇā करुणा | bo: nying je སྙིང་རྗེ་ | zh-cn: cíbēi 悲 )

The Pali commentaries distinguish between karuṇā and mettā as: Karuna is the desire to remove harm and suffering (ahita-dukkha-apanaya-kāmatā) from others; while mettā is the desire to bring about the well-being and happiness (hita-sukha-upanaya-kāmatā) of others.


Benevolence, loving-kindness, friendliness, good will.

It is the first of the four sublime states (Brahmavihāras) of Loving-kindness (metta), Compassion (karuna), Appreciative Joy (mudita), and Equanimity (upekkha).

The compassion and universal loving-kindness concept of Metta is discussed in the Metta Sutta of Buddhism.

( pi: मेत्ता ; sa: maitrī मैत्री ; bo: ka drin བཀའ་དྲིན་ )


“the cool state of mind resulting from the extinction of defilements; [the Buddha] termed it ‘the cessation of suffering’.“
— Buddhadasa Bhikkhu

Nibbāna, or nirvana, is the realization of non-self (anatta,/span.) and emptiness (sunyata). Also called ‘samadhi‘ — ‘enlightenment’. It can mark the end of rebirth by stilling the fires that keep the process of rebirth going.

The literal meaning is “blowing out”, as a candle, or “quenching”, as putting out a fire.

Another meaning of nibbāna is “cool”.
“Nirvana is a natural condition which has two aspects — the state of mind that is free from defilements and thus cool, while the body and sense faculties are not cool, and the state of mind wherein the sense faculties have cooled down.” — Buddhadasa Bhikkhu

( sa: nirvāṇa | bo: … | en: enlightenment )



Commonly translated as “ignorance” or “delusion”, the concept refers to misconceptions about the nature of metaphysical reality, in particular about the nature of impermanence and [non-]self. Delusion/ignorance is the root cause of Dukkha (suffering, pain, unsatisfactoriness).

( sa: avidyā ; bo: me rigpa )