An important Buddhist concept. It is commonly translated as “suffering”. It refers to the fundamental discomfort, ranging from problematical, to unsatisfactoriness, to extreme painfulness, of worldly life.

Dukkha can be paired with “sukha” – sweet – the true ease of life when ignorance is lost.

I have read that its core meaning is “sourness”. Other references say that its core meaning is “a wheel out of kilter.’ Both sound good 🙂

More about dukkha;
* https://buddhism.stackexchange.com/questions/11404/did-the-buddha-really-say-that-life-is-suffering
* https://buddhism.stackexchange.com/search?q=dukkha
* https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dukkha

( sa: duḥkha ; bo: duk-ngel སྡུག་བསྔལ་ )


Upekkhā is the Buddhist concept of equanimity, and is one of the four Brahma Vihara (meditative states). To practice upekkha is to be unwavering or to stay neutral in the face of life’s many changes, both good and bad. This is true happiness.

( pi: upekkhā उपेक्खा; sa: upekṣā उपेक्षा )


“Mindfulness of breathing” (ānā – inhalation; pāna – exhalation; “sati” mindfulness) is a form of Buddhist meditation originally taught by Gautama Buddha in several suttas including the Ānāpānasati Sutta. It is the core meditation practice in Theravada, Tiantai, Tibetan Dzogchen, and Chan (Zen) traditions of Buddhism, as well as a part of many modern Western “mindfulness” programs.

( sa: ānāpānasmṛti )

Related: prāṇā, prāṇāyāma, …


Dāna is a Sanskrit and Pali word that connotes the virtue of generosity, charity, or giving in Indian philosophies; the inclination to give, without expecting anything in return.

( pi, sa: dāna दान )

Dana: The Practice of Giving – Selected essays edited by Bhikkhu Bodhi, 1995


“to see into” or “seeing deeply” – meditation techniques that assist one towards mindfulness, and onwards to insight into the true nature of reality: impermanence, unsatisfactoriness, and non-self — through direct perception, as opposed to knowledge derived from reasoning or argument.

( sa: vipaśyanā विपश्यन ; za-cn: guān 觀 ; bo: lhak tong ལྷག་མཐོང་ | en: seeing deeply )


“calm abiding” — meditation techniques that assist in calming the mind.

(sa: śamatha शमथ ; zh-cn: zhi 止 ; bo: shinyé ཞི་གནས་ )


Way of living; path; law of nature, cosmic law of order; teachings of the Buddha. In Buddhist philosophy, dhamma is also the term for “phenomena” — things that exist.

( pi: dhamma धम्म | sa: dharma धर्म | bo: choe ཆོས་ | cn-zh: fǎ 法 | ja: hō )