It is the second of the four sublime states (Brahmavihāras) of Loving-kindness (metta), Compassion (karuna), Empathetic Joy (mudita), and Equanimity (upekkha).

( sa: karuṇā करुणा | bo: nying je སྙིང་རྗེ་ | zh-cn: cíbēi 悲 )

The Pali commentaries distinguish between karuṇā and mettā as: Karuna is the desire to remove harm and suffering (ahita-dukkha-apanaya-kāmatā) from others; while mettā is the desire to bring about the well-being and happiness (hita-sukha-upanaya-kāmatā) of others.

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