“to see into” or “seeing deeply” – meditation techniques that assist one towards mindfulness, and onwards to insight into the true nature of reality: impermanence, unsatisfactoriness, and non-self — through direct perception, as opposed to knowledge derived from reasoning or argument.

( sa: vipaśyanā विपश्यन ; za-cn: guān 觀 ; bo: lhak tong ལྷག་མཐོང་ | en: seeing deeply )


“calm abiding” — meditation techniques that assist in calming the mind.

(sa: śamatha शमथ ; zh-cn: zhi 止 ; bo: shinyé ཞི་གནས་ )


A rule of behavior.

Followers of Buddhism voluntary take on five or eight precepts, and ordained monks/nuns over 200, as a way of looking after our bodily actions and speech, and enabling our mindfulness.

( pi: sīla ; sa: śīla ; bo: … )


A philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism, and Jainism; and a literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.


The inner purification that occurs through non-harming, beneficial acts of body, speech, and mind.

In Asian culture often not an abstract concept, but deeply felt.

( pi: puñña | sa: puṇya | bo: so nam བསོད་ནམས་ | zh-cn: gōng dé 功德 | th: bun บุญ | ja: kudoku くどく )


If you take away the petals, stamens, pistil, etc, of the flower, where is the flower itself? “Emptiness” is this concept, that nothing exists of itself on its own side. It is not the same as the concept of an empty glass having no contents, nor is it nihilism. It is part of interdependence, that everything is made of everything else and does not have any independent existence.

( pi: suññatā सुञ्ञता | sa: śūnyatā शून्यता | bo: tongpa-nyi སྟོང་པ་ཉིད་ | th: … | ja: kū 空 | zh-cn: kōng 空 )

suññatā at


Way of living; path; law of nature, cosmic law of order; teachings of the Buddha. In Buddhist philosophy, dhamma is also the term for “phenomena” — things that exist.

( pi: dhamma धम्म | sa: dharma धर्म | bo: choe ཆོས་ | cn-zh: fǎ 法 | ja: hō )


A hut; the small house or hut where a monk lives — nowadays more likely to be a room in a larger bulding. A kuti will still be the typical abode of a forest monastery bhikkhu (monk).

( pi: kuṭi | th: kuti กุฏิ )

Also at